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如何投資虛擬貨幣

以增加他们的利润

领先的CPG公司正在将品牌预算和按需付费的交易中的资金预算重新分配给按效果付费的RMNs 。这样做并非易事,因为这些预算都是在不同的计划时间表上,由组织的不同部门进行管理的。 CPG公司将需要重新构想其计划流程,例如,通过进行跨职能预算和联合绩效管理会议,以清晰地了解总投资;他们还需要开发一种更灵活的重新分配机制,以便在机会出现时迅速调整支出。此外,领先公司正在更仔细地研究会计配置:哪些营销资金应分配给特定客户,哪些应被视为“漏斗顶部。”

以增加他们的利润

Investing: Know Everything is a page that share lots of investing knowledge, especially on a company's fundamental. However, some technical analysis will also be included if necessary, making the page more approachable to all investors.

Profit margin of a company varies depending on their business 以增加他们的利润 segment, some may be high, and some may be low. However, why is profit margin important when we are 以增加他们的利润 investing a company?

First, we should talk about how to calculate profit margin, it is to take its net profit and divide by revenue. As an example, Company A earned RM1 million of revenue but its net profit is only RM50k, which makes their profit margin only 5% (以增加他们的利润 RM50,000 / RM1,000,000). By only having 5% of profit margin, meaning that Company A only earn RM5 for every RM100 that is produced, and it is considered to be relatively low.

Furthermore, when you have low profit margin, a slight increase in material cost, or higher administration cost may cause you to earn lesser. Take Company A as an example again, if the company is earning RM50k because oil price is low, then it will earn lesser when oil price rebounded, probably will only earn around 以增加他们的利润 RM40k, which make their profit margin even lower. In worst case scenario, Company A will even be in the red when all other expenses increased, causing them to lose money.

On the other 以增加他们的利润 hand, company with high profit margin seemingly to have a 以增加他们的利润 protective gear. Let say Company B have 30% profit margin, which is relatively normal for technology or precision engineering companies. Even if all 以增加他们的利润 the material cost and administrative cost increase, they margin will probably dropped to 20%, but it is still high, considering the company is making RM20 for every RM100 sales.

Some real life examples are given. JFTECH and UCHITEC has relatively high profit margin because of their business segment, where their businesses are precision engineering and manufacturing of coffee machine, respectively. On the other hand, JCY and VS has lower profit margin because their businesses are HDD base manufacturing and EMS, respectively.以增加他们的利润

In short, we can see that companies that do more precise stuff and manufacturing more complicated item will tend to earn more, since they will have to pay extra care on their product. On the other hand, companies will earn lesser when they are only assembly items, or manufacture components that does not require extra care. All in all, companies with higher profit margin can be considered to have an extra shield on their businesses.

要发展还是要利润?优步的烧钱困境

创立优步的想法产生于联合创始人特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)和加勒特·坎普(Garrett Camp)在巴黎一个雪夜打不到出租车的经历。坎普的第一个想法是创办一个“豪华轿车分时租车服务”,乘客通过智能手机软件在需要时预订车,填补专用车服务的闲置时间。后来,优步将推出的服务扩展到低价乘车,如UberX、UberXL、UberSELECT; 新优步服务UberBLACK、UberSUV和UberLUX; 以及拼车服务UberPOOL。优步如今在70多个国家的500多个城市运营。

虽然峰时定价的做法不是现在才有,航空公司已经运用多年,但却是首次用于汽车服务。优步让乘客接受了这一做法。只要成本透明、公开和公平,“大家就能习惯”, 沃顿商学院运营、信息和决策专业教授提尔·维拉哈凡(Senthil Veeraraghavan)说道。例如,平时只需4美元的搭车服务高峰时期需要7美元,乘客并不反对。虽然初期遭到一些在新年前夜狂欢的人针对短途乘坐需要几百美元的抗议,但乘客已经学会事先考虑高峰时段的价格问题。优步给出提示避免这样的意外。“优步告诉乘客某一时段的需求会很高,所以你应该根据总体需求安排出行。”维拉哈凡说。

沃顿营销学教授罗恩·伯曼(Ron Berman)指出,优步的运作是一个典型的“双边市场”(two-sided market),优步公司是司机和乘客之间的“做市商”,提供连接双方的平台。他补充说,因此产生了一个“强网络效应”( strong network effect)。“路上的司机越多,乘客等待的时间越少,他们得到的服务就越好。这吸引更多的乘客和更多的司机加入优步,因为他们知道有高需求存在,而闲置时间少。

熊市与牛市情境预测

烧钱的熊案是,优步就算承受亏损也要降低价格以获得更多乘客的策略从长期来看是有问题的。为了取得成功,“该战略依赖于优步能在所有主要正统出租车企业退出后取得市场主导地位,沃顿商学院管理学教授阿卡迪·萨哈罗夫(Arkadiy Sakhartov)说,“我不认为这个战略可持续。”以增加他们的利润 例如,他指出,从他家乘坐出租车到机场要花费 95美元,而使用优步仅花费32美元。出租车行业知道跑一趟车要赚钱需要定价多少。优步为了在同一趟路途上赚取利润,必须将成本降低三倍,这是不太可能的。

对其他服务进行投资是优步另一个烧钱的方面。优步推出了食品交付服务优步EATS,直升机搭乘服务优步CHOPPER以及长途卡车服务优步Freight等。但这些可能是分心之作。瑞恩教授认为,“试图在多个战线上执行可能会大大增加公司运营的复杂性并分散其焦点。不同业务部门建立在相同的基本能力上能在一定程度上缓解这一问题,但仍然值得担心。

全球市场的复杂性

至少,优步对监管规定众所周知的强硬态度似乎有所软化。荷南德指出CEO 卡兰尼克在德国2015年会议上的讲话预示着公司从“有原则的对抗”(principled confrontation)的激进策略转变。他的演讲题目是《优步与欧洲:共同合作使城市转型》(Uber and Europe: Partnering to Enable City Transformation)。最近,优步表示将与市政府官员分享匿名的汇总出行数据。这些出行数据可以帮助城市决定在何处投资基础设施,以缓解交通或带来其他益处。